What are kidney stones, their type, symptoms, causes and their treatment?

Medpho Team April 27, 2023


Kidney stones, also termed renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can evolve anywhere along the urinary tract. It consists of the kidneys ureters, bladder and urethra.

Kidney stones types

Kidney stones can be painful and may vary according to the type of stones. Different kidney stones have different formulations and are not made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include:

The maximum occurring kidney stones type contains calcium content and is often made of calcium oxalate, though they may contain calcium phosphate or maleate. Consuming less oxalate-rich food can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods may include

  • potato chips
  • peanuts
  • chocolate
  • spinach

Some kidney stones are indeed made of calcium, but avoiding enough calcium intake in your diet can prevent stones from forming.

Uric acid
The next most common type of kidney stone is the uric acid stone. This type of stone is mainly seen in people with gout, diabetes, obesity and other types of metabolic syndrome. Be careful when you start noticing that your urine is turning too acidic. Purine rich diet increases urine's acidic level. It may include

  • Alcoholic beverages (all types)
  • Some fish, seafood and shellfish, including anchovies, sardines, herring, mussels, codfish, scallops, trout and haddock.
  • Some meats, such as bacon, turkey, veal, venison and organ meats like liver

People with urinary tract infections are diagnosed with Struvite stones, and these stones can be enormous and cause urinary obstacles. Treating a kidney infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.

Cystine kidney stones are rare stone types and occur in men and women with cystinuria genetic disorder.

Kidney stones symptom


Kidney stones can vary in size and often cause severe pain. The kidney stone symptom is visible once the stone starts to move down the ureters. This intense pain is called renal colic and results in pain on one side of the back or abdomen.

In males, pain may diverge to the groin area. The pain of renal colic is not consistent as it comes and goes and can be severe on certain occasions and people with renal colic tend to be restless. Other symptoms of kidney stones can

  • urine blood (red, pink, or brown urine)
  • vomiting
  • foul-smelling urine
  • chills
  • fever
  • frequent urination
  • urinating in small amounts

For instance, when there is a small kidney stone, the person may not have any symptoms, and the stone may pass through the urinary tract.

For any Information regarding Kidney stones under Ayushman surgery or looking for a doctor consultation for kidney stones, issues call 88569-88569 Now.

Kidney stones causes

Kidney stones causes are numerous and mainly occur in the age groups of 20 and 50. There are various factors that may lead to an increase in the risk of developing a stone. Talking about both sexes, men are more susceptible to developing kidney stones or kidney stone causes, as per data searched by the National Institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases (NIDDK)

Kidney stones risk factors

There are various kidney stones risk factors which need to be checked. A person with a family history of kidney stones can have different risk factors, and they may include

  • dehydration
  • obesity
  • high levels of protein, salt, or glucose diet
  • hyper parathyroid ailment
  • gastric bypass surgery
  • IBS increase calcium absorption
  • should void intake of medication, including diuretics like antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids

Kidney stones treatment

Kidney stone treatment is of several types, and in some cases, when they are smaller in size, they do not require surgery and mostly perish the need within three to six weeks. In such a situation, the only treatment needed is pain relief.

Hospital admission is needed when the cases are too unbearable, and solid pain-relieving medication needs to be administered. Get immediate medical attention when suffering from sharp pain.

Small stones do not usually cause trouble, so there is often no need to remove them or undergo surgery. A nephrologist or a urology expert is the best person to treat kidney stones. It should be removed when a stone cannot pass, blocks urine flow, or causes bleeding or an infection. New surgical procedures reduce the hospital's stay to as little as 48 hours. The therapy includes

  • The extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) – method involves ultrasound waves to break the kidney stones into small pieces so they can pass with urine. The procedure is valid for stones less than 2cm in size.
  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy – The procedure is helpful for the removal of stones that are larger than 2cm. It involves making a small cut at the back.
  • Endoscope removal – In this procedure, the endoscope is inserted into the urethra. Next, it is passed into the bladder, where the stone is located. This permits the doctor to easily remove or break the stone so it can pass out easily.
  • Surgery – When none of these methods is working out, the stone requires removal by using conventional surgery. This will demand a cut in your back to access your kidney and ureter to release the stone.

For any information related to free surgery under Ayushman Yojana or any queries regarding Ayushman Bharat Yojana, Contact Medphoon#BasEkCallat88569-88569.