What are Mental Disorders? Its symptoms, causes, types & treatment

Medpho Team July 29, 2023

A mental disorder, often known as a mental illness or psychiatric problem, is a pattern of behaviour or thought that causes considerable suffering or impairs an individual's ability to function.

These symptoms might be persistent, relapsing, and remitting, or they can appear in single periods. Many disorders have been identified, with signs and symptoms that differ significantly. A mental health expert, usually a clinical psychologist or psychiatrist, can diagnose such disorders.

With the hectic schedules and busy lifestyle mental health has been severely impacted and needs mental health awareness approach to curb it. 

This blog contains all the information about mental disorders.

What are mental disorders?

What are mental disorders?

Mental disorders (or mental conditions) are illnesses that impact your thoughts, feelings, emotions, and behaviour. They might be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic), affecting your ability to interact with others and function daily.

What are the signs & symptoms of mental disorders?

Depending on the diagnosis, circumstances, and other factors, the signs and symptoms of mental illness might vary. Emotions, thoughts, and behaviours are all affected by mental illness.

Signs and symptoms include:

  • Feeling sad or depressed
  • Confused thinking or a lack of concentration
  • Extreme sentiments of guilt or excessive anxieties or worries
  • Intense mood swings with extreme highs and lows
  • Withdrawal from social interactions and activities
  • Significant tiredness, low energy, or difficulties sleeping
  • Inability to deal with everyday stress
  • Detachment from reality or hallucinations
  • Having trouble understanding and responding to situations and people
  • Alcohol or drug abuse problems
  • Significant dietary changes
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Excessive anger, hatred, or violence
  • Suicidal ideation

Physical issues, such as stomach aches, back pain, headaches, or other unexpected aches and pains, can sometimes be mental health disorder symptoms.

If you and your loved ones have any signs or symptoms of a mental illness, get free teleconsultation with our expert doctor at 88569-88569.

Most mental illnesses don't improve on their own. If left untreated, it may worsen over time and cause serious problems.

What are the causes of mental disorders?

In general, Mental diseases are caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors like:

Inherited characteristics: People with mental illnesses are more likely to have blood relatives with mental illnesses. Specific genes may enhance your chance of mental illness, and your living circumstances may be the trigger.

Prenatal environmental exposure: Environmental stresses, inflammatory diseases, poisons, alcohol, and medications can all be linked to mental disorders while in the womb.

Brain Chemistry: Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that transport signals to various parts of the brain and body. The function of neural receptors and nerve systems changes when brain networks involving these substances are compromised, leading to depression and other emotional disorders.

What are the types of mental disorders?

The more common mental health issues and mental disorders are as follows:

Anxiety disorders: If left untreated, anxiety disorders can substantially impact people's daily lives. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorders, social phobias, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and post-traumatic stress disorder.

Emotional & behavioural disorders in children: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are all common behaviour disorders in children. People with mental disorders can be treated with therapy, education, and medication.

Bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a type of mood illness. Mania (elation) and depression are common in people with bipolar disorder. Psychotic symptoms may or may not occur, and the specific reason is unknown. However, there is a significant genetic propensity, and environmental factors can also trigger episodes of this mental disease.

Depression: Depression is a mental condition characterized by a change in mood, a loss of enjoyment, and energy loss. Depression is not just about being sad, as it comes in many types and symptoms. 

Depression manifests itself in various degrees of severity and symptoms. Depressed symptoms can exacerbate suicidal thoughts or behaviours.

Eating Disorders: Eating disorders include anorexia, bulimia nervosa, and other binge eating disorders. Females and males both are affected by eating disorders, which can have severe psychological and physical implications.

Dementia: Dementia is a chronic or progressive disorder in which cognitive function (the capacity to process information) deteriorates beyond what would be expected with normal ageing. Memory, cognition, orientation, comprehension, computation, learning capacity, language, and judgment are all affected. 

Dissociative Disorders: Dissociative is a mental state in which a person loses touch with their ideas, feelings, memories, or sense of self. Dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative identity disorder are dissociative disorders.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): OCD is a type of anxiousness. Obsessions are invasive and unwanted repeated thoughts, visions, or impulses, and compulsions are tedious time-consuming rituals. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and medicines are some of the treatments available.

Paranoia: Paranoia is the irrational and persistent belief that others are 'out to get you'. Paranoia is a symptom of paranoid personality disorder, delusional (paranoid) disorder, and schizophrenia. Medication and psychological assistance are common treatments for paranoia.

Psychosis: Delusions, hallucinations, and illogical thinking are common symptoms of psychosis. Drug-induced psychosis, schizophrenia, and mood disorders are examples of mental conditions that can cause psychosis. Psychotic symptoms can be reduced or even eliminated with medication and psychological treatment.

What are the treatment options for mental disorders?

What are the treatment options for mental disorders?

Treatment is dependent on the type of mental disorder and its severity. You and your physician may develop a treatment plan for you, and it usually entails some form of treatment. You may also take prescribed medications. Some people also require social support and instruction about managing their illness.

You may require more intensive treatment in some cases. You may need to be admitted to a psychiatric doctor, which could be due to the severity of your mental disorder. 

Keep in Mind: If you have a mental illness, managing stress and building strength can help you manage your condition.


Mental illness affects a person's thinking, feeling, behaviour or mood. These problems severely impact day-to-day existence and may also affect the ability to relate to others. If you have — or suspect you may have — a mental disorder, the first thing you should know is that you are not alone. Mental illnesses are significantly more frequent than you imagine, mainly because people don't like to, or are scared to, talk about them.

Looking to Consult a Psychiatrist who can guide you with Mental illness. Contact Medpho on #BaskEkCall at 88569-88569 for a Free teleconsultation with our expert Doctors.